Mission Control: The Exosome Escape Clause

mock-infected A control used in infection experiments. Two specimens are used one that is infected with the virus/vector of interest and the other is treated the same way except without the virus. Sometimes a non-virulent strain is used in the mock-infected specimen.” https://www.genscript.com/biology-glossary/10558/mock-infected#:~:text=A%20control%20used%20in%20infection,in%20the%20mock%2Dinfected%20specimen. A control in science is an element that remains unchanged or the same throughout the experiment. They allow for the experimentor… Continue reading Mission Control: The Exosome Escape Clause

The Case Against Cell Cultures

“Many clinically relevant viruses are simply difficult to grow or cannot be grown at all in cultured cells, while other viruses require specialized culture systems that are either not available or too complicated for routine use in diagnostic laboratories. Traditional tube cultures, although viewed as being comprehensive in growing a wide range of viruses and… Continue reading The Case Against Cell Cultures

Creating the Cytopathic Effect

“Cytopathic effect (CPE), structural changes in a host cell resulting from viral infection. CPE occurs when the infecting┬ávirus┬ácauses lysis (dissolution) of the host cell or when the cell dies without lysis because of its inability to reproduce.” https://www.britannica.com/science/cytopathic-effect I’ve already gone through some of the various factors (bacteria, amoeba, parasites, chemical additives) which can be… Continue reading Creating the Cytopathic Effect

Sub-Culturing and Cell Culture Adaptations

“Barbara McClintock might be surprised to learn how well recent discoveries support her hypotheses. Her experiments of 60 years ago led her to propose that cells under environmental stress activate transposable elements in order to restructure the cell genome (McClintock, 1984).“ https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1097276507004510 It is well known that cells under stress change and adapt due to… Continue reading Sub-Culturing and Cell Culture Adaptations

Environmental Contamination

Another area of concern in regards to cell cultures is environmental contamination. This kind of contamination is impossible to avoid as the potential sources are everywhere. This can occur from the plastic dishes used during cultures, from the purity of the water used, unintentional effects from certain light sources, or even from cleaning the incubators… Continue reading Environmental Contamination

The Unethical use of Fetal Bovine Serum

“Lack of reproducibility of scientific experiments is a pervasive issue that affects cell culture work due to the plethora of uncontrollable components used in these systems.” “FBS and other serums have the potential to greatly impact the quality and reproducibility of cell-culture work. The role of FBS should be elevated, given the significant impact its… Continue reading The Unethical use of Fetal Bovine Serum

Cell Culture Media

Cell Culture Media is arguably the most important component in the culture beyond the type of cell used. This is a liquid or gel that is said to contain all the various vitamins and micronutrients needed for the cell to survive. They are typically listed in studies under the names Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM)… Continue reading Cell Culture Media

The Cytopathic Effect

Cell cultures are the main method for “virus isolation” and are considered the gold standard even in the face of improving technology: “With the recent advances in technology, cell culture is considered a gold standard for virus isolation.” A typical cell culture consists of taking a sample from a sick person (called the isolate even… Continue reading The Cytopathic Effect