The Lansing strain of Polio is one of three strains used in the Polio vaccine. It was created through the emulsified brain and spinal cord of an 18-year-old boy from Lansing, MI. The emulsified goo was injected into the brains of monkeys which then had their brains and spinal cords emulsified and transferred into other monkeys 15 times. This process was repeated into cotton rats and eventually into the white mouse. This continually passaged goo was widely used for Polio research and was the one used by John Franklin Enders during his Polio tissue/cell culture experimemts which lead to the discovery of the “cytopathogenic effect” still used today to indirectly state that a “virus” is present in the cell culture soup.
Below are two full studies from 1939 by Charles Armstrong which detail the grotesque Lansing strain transfer from boy to monkeys to rats to mice. No purified/isolated “virus” is ever presented in either paper nor is pathogenicity proven. Beyond creating experimental disease in some animals through brain injections of ground up tissue goo, the only outcome from these studies was that they ultimately led to cheaper test animals being used for Polio experimentation:
THE EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF POLIOMYELITIS TO THE EASTERN COTTON RAT, SIGMODON HISPIDUS HISPID US
“Through the courtesy of Dr. Max Peet, of the Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, we received on August 28, 1937, a sample of brain and cord from an 18-year old boy, one of several bulbar cases of poliomyelitis which occurred at Lansing, Mich., during that summer. A strain of virus was recovered from the material which has now been through 15 monkey passages and which clinically, and pathologically as reported by Surgeon R. D. Lillie, is apparently a strain of poliomyelitis. Neutralization tests with this virus have not been done.
On November 8, 1937, several species of rodents, including a cotton rat received through the courtesy of Dr. A. Packehanian, of the National Institute of Health, were inoculated with a fourth monkey passage of the virus. The cotton rat remained apparently well until the twenty-fifth day, when it appeared nervous and tremulous. On the following day it was paralyzed in both hind legs and was sacrificed.
Pathologist R. D. Lillie, who has made all the pathological studies, reported “polioencephalitis.” Eleven cotton rats were inoculated with this strain of poliomyelitis virus during the winter of 1938, of which rat No. 9, inoculated on February 14, became paralyzed in both hind legs 29 days later. Brain and cord emulsion was passed to rat No. 13 and symptoms appeared on the sixteenth day. On the following day there was paralysis in the right front leg. Attempts at further passage were without success.
Efforts were again made, however, during the poliomyelitis season of 1939, and up to the time of this report the Lansing strain of virus has been carried in series through 7 cotton rat transfers and animals of the eighth transfer are developing symptoms. Rat brain and cord from the second and fifth passages conveyed typical poliomyelitis symptoms when introduced into monkeys. The details of these transfers are shown in table 1. Further transfers are under way.
The inoculum utilized was a 5 percent suspension of brain and cord and the dosage has been approximately 0.06 cc. intracerebrally, 0.06 cc. intranasally, and 0.25 cc. subcutaneously, for each animal. The minimal infective dose has not been determined, since it was necessary
to conserve our limited supply of cotton rats and we preferred, moreover, to wait until the virus had become somewhat adapted to the host. The virus at the sixth serial transfer seems to be gaining in virulence. A more detailed report of the results will be made later.
Successful transmission to date has been secured with the Lansing strain of virus only. Limited attempts at transmission were carried out with two strains of virus from Niagara Falls and with P. M. virus during the winter of 1938, at which time we also had only failures with the strain which now is giving results.
The first symptoms noted in the cotton rats consist of a roughened appearance of the fur and a tendency to react by violent jumping when agitated. Paralysis of a flaccid type has developed in all animals which we have considered as affected. The legs may be paralyzed in all combinations and respiratory difficulty has developed in several, with the respiratory rate falling as low as 30 per minute in some.Two rats with respiratory failure died; the others were etherized.
A number of other rodents have been inoculated with the virus utilized in the course of this study, including groups of Swiss mice with successive transfers, but no positive results have been secured in animals other than the cotton rats.
The eastern cotton rat is not vicious and it multiplies readily in captivity. It is hoped, therefore, that when a sufficient supply becomes available and the most susceptible age is determined the cotton rat may prove to be a cheap, convenient, and useful laboratory animal for the study of poliomyelitis.
It is conceivable, bowever, that the results secured may be due to some peculiarities of this particular strain of virus.“
The above study greatly details the disturbing practice of passaging a “virus” from one species to another. This process started with the emulsification of the spine and brain of an 18-year-old who was suspected to have died from Poilo. These remains were mixed with unknown chemicals/additives and then injected into the brains (and sometimes stomachs and skin as well) of monkeys. If any of the monkeys became sick, they were killed and had their brains/spinal cords emulsified to be injected into other test animals. This horrifying chain of events was carried out over and over again and eventually the researchers started mixing species. Inoculations of monkey goo would be injected into the craniums of cotton rats. The emulsified remains of sick cotton rats were then injected into the mice. This would go on back and forth between the species. Other animals were also experimented on in the same way but it was the monkey, the cotton rat, and the mouse which ultimately gave Armstrong and other researchers the results they were looking for.
This next study is where Armstrong eventually transferred the “virus” from rat to mouse. It offers even more detail on the sadistic passaging practices done to helpless animals in order to create experimental disease:
SUCCESSFUL TRANSFER OF THE LANSING STRAIN OF POLIOMYELITIS VIRUS FROM THE COTTON RAT TO THE WHITE MOUSE
By CHARLES ARMSTRONG, Senior Surgeon, United States Public Health Service
“In an earlier paper (1) the successful transmission of a strain of poliomyelitis to the eastern cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus hispidus, was recorded. This strain has now been carried through 26 serial transfers in this species to which it has become progressively better adapted. The incubation period has shown a tendency to stabilize at from 3 to 5 days when the inoculating dose is maintained at 0.06 cc. of a 5 percent saline suspension of virus-infected fresh cord and brain, administered intracerebrally. Attempts to transmit the infection by the intranasal route have so far been without success. Cotton rats are apparently quite uniformly susceptible to intracerebral inoculations. Eighty-nine cotton rats of various ages trapped in nature have been inoculated for the purpose of “carrying” the Lansing strain of virus from the seventh to twenty-fifth generations, of which 1 animal died of unknown cause, possibly poliomyelitis, on the fourth day, while of the remaining 88 only 1 failed to develop flaccid paralyses. The clinical and pathological manifestations are more pronounced than in earlier transfers and the majority of rats die within 2 to 4 days after symptoms appear, unless sacrificed earlier.
Intracerebral inoculation into monkeys of brain and cord material (1 cc. of a 5 percent suspension) from the third, sixth, and fifteenth cotton rat transfers was followed by severe clinical and pathological poliomyelitis in all cases.
Three neutralization tests have been attempted employing cotton rats, recent passage strains of the virus, and poliomyelitis antisera, one of which sera (P. C. M. S. XII) was received through the courtesy of Dr. E. H. Lennette, one (M-1791) from Dr. Lloyd Aycock, and one of our own (M-409) from a monkey which had recovered from an attack of poliomyelitis following inoculation with the P. M. strain of virus.
These tests, while of a preliminary experimental character, all indicate that two of the sera possess neutralizing properties for the virus, while the serum from Dr. Aycock’s monkey is apparently almost or completely inert. The results of the last trial are shown in detail in table 1. In this test a 1:15 emulsion in buffered saline, pH 7.6, of cord and brain from cotton rats 452 and 453 (23 transfers) was centrifuged at 1,200 r. p. m. for 5 minutes and 1 part of the supernatant fluid was added to 2 parts of the respective sera to be tested. The mixtures were incubated in the hot room at 37.5? C. for 2 hours, then placed at 50 to 80 C. for 45 minutes. Four cotton rats were each inoculated intracerebrally with 0.06 cc. of each serum-virus mixture.
Attempts to adapt additional strains of poliomyelitis to the cotton rat are under way. One rat inoculated with our “Bush” strain isolated from a case of poliomyelitis at Niagara Falls, N. Y., in 1938, developed paralysis in the right front leg, first noted on the forty-first day. Sufficient time has not yet elapsed to indicate whether or not subtransfers will succeed.
TRANSFER OF THE VIRUS TO WHITE MICE
Since it was thought that a strain of virus adapted to the cotton rat might be pathogenic for other rodent species, transfers were made into white mice. Suggestive results were not obtained until 30 days after the seventh cotton rat transfer of virus was so inoculated, when 1 of 5 intracerebrally inoculated mice was found to be paralyzed in the left front paw and left hind leg. The following day, October 20, 1939, the left front and both hind legs were completely paralyzed. Brain and cord emulsion from this mouse was transferred to 4 groups (2 Swiss and 2 ordinary) of 6 half grown to adult white mice and to cotton rat 353. Twelve of the 24 mice developed paralysis in one or more legs in from 3 to 12 days and the cotton rat developed typical symptoms on the eighth day and was completely paralyzed on the tenth day, when it was etherized and the brain and cord submitted for pathological study. Dr. R. D. Lillie reported poliomyelitis similar to that observed in direct cotton rat transfers.
Successful mouse inoculations have now been carried through 12 successive transfers. The virus is showing a tendency to affect a higher proportion of mice in later passages. For instance, of 36 mice inoculated on the ninth transfer, 28 developed paralyses on from the second to twentieth days. An incubation period of 3 to 7 days is most common.
The symptoms in mice consist of flaccid paralysis, most obvious when one or more legs or the respiratory muscles are involved. Except when respiration is affected, the mice usually appear to be sleek and without symptonms other than the paralyses.
Pathological examination of a limited number of affected mice has been made by Surgeon R. D. Lillie, who reports lesions consistent with those of poliomyelitis in other species.
Brain and cord emulsion from the fourth mouse transfer was injected intracerebrally into monkey 610 which developed a continuous fever from the fifth to eleventh days, reaching 41 C. on the sixth and seventh days. The animal was nervous and tremulous, but recovered without paralysis.
Monkey 618, similarly inoculated with sixth mouse transfer virus, developed fever on the fourth day with tremors and definite weakness of the hind legs. The animal was sacrificed on the eighth day and a subinoculation of cord emulsion was made into monkey 620 which developed severe symptoms followed by complete paralysis on the tenth day. Lesions typical of moderately severe and severe poliomyelitis were reported for the respective animals by Pathologist J. H. Peers.
An emulsion of cord from monkey 620 was transferred on December 11, 1939, to cotton rats 459 and 460 and to 5 white mice. The cotton rats developed typical symptoms on December 17 and 18 followed by complete paralysis and death on December 20 and 22, respectively. Up to December 26, 1939, two of the white mice had developed symptoms. One showed flaccid paralysis in both hind legs on December 17 and died on December 22. A second became paralyzed in the left front and right hind leg on December 25 and was still living on December 26.
That the virus in mice is the same as the cotton rat strain is further indicated by the successful transfer of the third, ninth, and eleventh mouse generations of virus again to cotton rats with the development of characteristic symptoms and pathology for that species and by the fact that primary mouse inoculations from the fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth, eighteenth, nineteenth, twenty-fourth, and twenty-fifth successive transfers in the cotton rat have uniformly produced flaccid paralysis in a portion of the inoculated mice.
The virus has certain marked similarities to, as well as marked differences from, the spontaneous mouse virus first described by Theiler in 1934 (2), with which it is hoped to compare it immunologically in the near future.
The Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus after adaptation to the eastern cotton rat has been successfully transmitted through twelve generations in white mice.“
- A strain of “virus” was recovered from the emulsified brain/spine of an 18-year-old boy which went through 15 monkey passages
- It was determined clinically and pathologically, as reported by Surgeon R. D. Lillie, as apparently a strain of poliomyelitis
- Neutralization tests for the “virus” were not done
- Several species of rodents, including a cotton rat, were inoculated with a fourth monkey passage of the “virus”
- The cotton rat remained apparently well until the 25th day when it appeared nervous and tremulous
- On the following day it was paralyzed in both hind legs and was sacrificed
- Eleven cotton rats were inoculated with this “strain” of poliomyelitis “virus” during the winter of 1938, and only one rat (No. 9) became paralyzed in both hind legs 29 days later
- Brain and cord emulsion was passed to rat No. 13 and symptoms appeared on the sixteenth day
- On the following day there was paralysis in the right front leg
- Attempts at further passage were without success
- Up to the time of this report, the Lansing strain of “virus” has been carried in series through 7 cotton rat transfers and animals of the eighth transfer are developing symptoms
- Rat brain and cord from the second and fifth passages were injected into the brain, nose, and skin of monkeys which conveyed typical poliomyelitis symptoms
- The inoculum utilized was a 5 percent suspension of brain and cord and the dosage has been approximately 0.06 cc. intracerebrally, 0.06 cc. intranasally, and 0.25 cc. subcutaneously, for each animal
- The minimal infective dose was not determined
- Only the Lansing strain has shown successful “transmission”
- Limited attempts at transmission were carried out with two strains of “virus” from Niagara Falls and with P. M. “virus” during the winter of 1938, at which time they also had only failures with the Lansing strain
- Paralysis of a flaccid type developed in all animals which they considered as affected (in other words, they made a SUBJECTIVE diagnosis)
- A number of other rodents were inoculated with the “virus” utilized in the course of this study, including groups of Swiss mice with successive transfers, but no positive results were secured in animals other than the cotton rats
- Armstrong hopes that cotton rats will be cheap and effective test subjects in the future but notes it is conceivable that the results secured may be due to some peculiarities of this particular strain of “virus” (or possibly, the methods used to create the experimental disease, perhaps?)
- The Lansing strain had been carried through 26 serial transfers in the cotton rat at this point
- The incubation period showed a tendency to stabilize at from 3 to 5 days when the inoculating dose was maintained at 0.06 cc. of a 5 percent saline suspension of “virus-infected” fresh cord and brain, administered intracerebrally
- Attempts to transmit the infection by the intranasal route have so far been without success
- Eighty-nine cotton rats of various ages had been inoculated for the purpose of “carrying” (his quotations, not mine) the Lansing strain of “virus” from the seventh to twenty-fifth generations (in other words, passed through intracerebral injections of emulsified brain/spine goo from the previous animal to the next 25 times)
- Intracerebral inoculations into monkeys of brain and cord material (1 cc. of a 5 percent suspension) from only the third, sixth, and fifteenth cotton rat transfers were followed by severe clinical and pathological poliomyelitis in all cases (meaning this did not occur in the other 22 passages tested)
- Nuetralizaton tests, which were of a preliminary experimental character, indicated that two of the three sera possess neutralizing properties for the “virus,” while the serum from Dr. Aycock’s monkey was apparently almost or completely inert
- They were attempting to adapt additional “strains” but ufficient time had not yet elapsed to indicate whether or not subtransfers would succeed
- Transfers were made into white mice yet suggestive results were not obtained until 30 days after the seventh cotton rat transfer of “virus” was inoculated
- Only 1 of 5 intracerebrally inoculated mice was found to be paralyzed in the left front paw and left hind leg
- Brain and cord emulsion from this mouse was transferred to 4 groups (2 Swiss and 2 ordinary) of 6 half grown to adult white mice and to cotton rat 353
- Only 12 of the 24 mice developed paralysis in one or more legs in from 3 to 12 days
- “Successful” mouse inoculations had been carried through 12 successive transfers
- The mice usually appear to be sleek and without symptonms other than the paralyses
- Brain and cord emulsion from the fourth mouse transfer was injected intracerebrally into monkey 610 which developed a continuous fever for a few days
- The animal was nervous and tremulous, but recovered without paralysis
- Monkey 618, similarly inoculated with sixth mouse transfer “virus,” developed fever on the fourth day with tremors and weakness of the hind legs
- Monkey 618 was sacrificed on the eighth day and a subinoculation of cord emulsion was made into monkey 620 which developed severe symptoms followed by complete paralysis on the tenth day
- An emulsion of cord from monkey 620 was transferred on December 11, 1939, to cotton rats 459 and 460 and to 5 white mice
- Since they can not see the “virus,” they assume the “virus” is the same in both mouse and rat due to what they deem successful transfers in some (not all) of the passages
- The “virus” had certain marked similarities to, as well as marked differences from, the spontaneous mouse “virus” first described by Theiler in 1934
- The Lansing “strain” was transmitted through twelve generations (i.e. passages of brain/spine goo from rat to mouse) in white mice
As can be seen from these two studies, the Lansing strain is nothing but a mixture of emulsified brain and spinal cord goo transferred from a deceased boy to monkeys, rats, and mice and back again. It is not a purified/isolated “virus.” They assume a “virus” is present and being transferred every time they inject animals in the brain with foreign toxic sludge and then grind up and transfer the goo fron the “infected” animal to another one, repeating the horrific process over and over again. They never consider that the act of drilling a hole in the brains of these animals and injecting them with goo from other animals is the cause of the sickness/paralysis rather than a “virus.”
Keep in mind, this serially passaged toxic brain/spine goo is one of three used in the polio vaccine:
“Lansing virus: Type 2 poliovirus. Named after the city in Michigan where the first patient lived who was found to have this virus. There are two other strains of poliovirus: Type 1 (known as the Brunhilde virus) and Type 3 (known as the Leon virus). Immunity to one strain does not provide protection against the other two. All three strains are therefore included in the Poliovirus vaccine.”
People were injected with this serially passaged toxic concoction derived from decades of human and animal suffering. Is it any wonder why this vaccine causes as much death and destruction as the process used to create it? This practice of passaging an assumed invisible “virus” never proven to exist is the dark history of Polio and a grotesque inhumane stain on virology as similar practices are still done to helpless animals today.